LHC parameters

Taking a closer look at LHC

The values presented here are essentially what the machine presents, but repairs, improvements and upgrades during long shutdown (LS) cause some of them to vary slightly.

All these parameters have been calculated or introduced in this website.

Circumference 26659 m
Dipole operating temperature 1,9 K
Lattice type FODO 2-in-1
Number of arcs (2450 m long) 8
Number of lattice cells per arc 23
Number of straight sections (545 m long) 8
Main RF System 400.8 MHz
Voltage of 400 MHz RF system at 7 TeV 16 MV
Number of magnets (dipoles, quadrupoles ... dodecapoles)
Number of dipoles 1232
Number of quadrupoles 858
Number of RF cavities 8 per beam
Nominal energy, protons 7 TeV
Momentum at collision 7 TeV/c
Momentum at injection 450 GeV/c
Nominal energy, ions 2,76 TeV/nucleon
Peak magnetic dipole field 8,33 T
Current in main dipole 11800 A
Energy density of the LHC magnets 500 kJ/m
Main dipole coil inner diameter 56 mm
Distance between aperture axes (1.9 K) 194,00 mm
Distance between aperture axes (293 K) 194,52 mm
Main Dipole Length 14.3 m
Horizontal force at 8,33 T (inner and outer layer) 1,7 MN/m
Composition of the superconducting alloy Ni_Ti (47Wt% Ti)
Maximum current with NO resistence (1,9 K e 8,33 T) 17000 A
Maximum current with NO resistence (1,9 K e 0 T) 50000 A
Number de strands per cable 36
Number de Ni-Ti filaments in each strand 6500
Bending radius 2803.95 m
Minimum distance between bunches ~7 m
Bunch spacing 25 ns
Design Luminosity 1034 cm-2·s-1
No. of bunches per proton beam 2808
No. of protons per bunch (at start) 1,15·1011
Circulating current / beam 0,54 A
Number of turns per second 11245
Stored beam energy 360 MJ
Stored energy in magnets 11 GJ
Beam lifetime 10 h
Average crossing rate 31,6 MHz
Number of collisions per second 600 millions
Radiated Power per beam (syncrotron radiation) ~ 6 KW
Total crossing angle (collision point) 300 μrad
Emittance  εn  
3,75 μm rad
Beta function  β*
 0,55 m



Xabier Cid Vidal, PhD in experimental Particle Physics for Santiago University (USC). Research Fellow in experimental Particle Physics at CERN from January 2013 to Decembre 2015. He was until 2022 linked to the Department of Particle Physics of the USC as a "Juan de La Cierva", "Ramon y Cajal" fellow (Spanish Postdoctoral Senior Grants), and Associate Professor. Since 2023 is Senior Lecturer in that Department.(ORCID).

Ramon Cid Manzano, until his retirement in 2020 was secondary school Physics Teacher at IES de SAR (Santiago - Spain), and part-time Lecturer (Profesor Asociado) in Faculty of Education at the University of Santiago (Spain). He has a Degree in Physics and in Chemistry, and he is PhD for Santiago University (USC) (ORCID).



CERN Directory

CERN Experimental Program

Theoretical physics (TH)

CERN Experimental Physics Department

CERN Scientific Committees

CERN Structure

CERN and the Environment



Detector CMS

Detector ATLAS

Detector ALICE

Detector LHCb

Detector TOTEM

Detector LHCf

Detector MoEDAL

Detector FASER

Detector SND@LHC



 For the bibliography used when writing this Section please go to the References Section

© Xabier Cid Vidal & Ramon Cid - rcid@lhc-closer.es  | SANTIAGO (SPAIN) |