CERN Timeline

Taking a closer look at LHC

Major events for CERN.

The following is a list of events that we consider to be of special interest in CERN's history. It is inevitably incomplete, based on our personal perception and focused on the last few years, especially on the LHC experiments.

1949 - During the European Cultural Conference at Lausanne, the French physicist and Nobel prize-winner Louis de Broglie proposes the creation of a European science laboratory.

1950 -  At the 5th General Conference of UNESCO held in Florence, the American physicist and Nobel prize-winner Isidore Rabi puts forward a resolution, which is unanimously adopted, authorising the Director General of UNESCO, "to assist and encourage the formation and organization of regional centres and laboratories in order to increase and make more fruitful the international collaboration of scientists ...". 
1952 -  After two UNESCO Conferences are held on the subject, 11 European governments sign an agreement setting up a provisional ‘Conseil européen pour la Recherche nucléaire' (CERN). At a meeting of the CERN council in Amsterdam, a site near Geneva is selected for the planned laboratory. 
1954 - The European Organization for Nuclear Research is formally created on 29 September.Its 12 founding members were Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia. Austria and Spain join CERN in 1959 and 1961 respectively.Yugoslavia leaves the Organization in 1961 for financial reasons. Spain leaves the Organization in 1969 but rejoins in 1983. Finland and Poland join in 1991, Hungary in 1992, the Czech and Slovak Republics in 1993, Bulgaria in 1999, Israel joins in 2014, Romania in 2016 and Serbia in 2019, bringing the number of Member States to 23 by 2024, the year CERN turns 70.

1957 - The 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron, CERN's first accelerator, was built to provide beams for particle and nuclear physics experiments. It was subsequently used in nuclear physics, astrophysics and medical physics.

1958: An experiment at the Synchrocyclotron discovered a rare pion decay that spread CERN’s name around the world.

1959 - Proton Synchrotron (PS) -28 GeV- dedicated to particle physics accelerated protons for the first time in November 1959.

1963 - First bubble chamber pictures of neutrino interactions are taken. Neutrino physics benefits greatly from fast ejection of protons from the Synchrotron, which is achieved for the first time ever during May this year.

1965 - Agreement with French authorities is signed in September on extending the CERN site over the French border. In December, the Council approves the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) on this extension of the site.

1967 - CERN commissions one of the world's finest facilities for the study of very short-lived nuclei-the Isotope Separator On-line (ISOLDE). An agreement between CERN, France and Germany covers the construction of a 3.7 metre hydrogen bubble chamber equipped with the largest superconducting magnet in the world. During its working life from 1973 to 1984, the ‘Big European Bubble Chamber' (BEBC) takes over 6 million photographs.

1968 - CERN scientist Georges Charpak develops a gas-filled box known as a "multiwire proportional chamber" that counted particles one thousand times better than previous detectors.Georges Charpak is awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1992 for this invention.  
1969 - Spain, which had joined CERN in 1961, leaves the institution. It will return in 1983.
1970 - The Gargamelle detector begins operation. This is a bubble chamber designed to detect neutrinos. It operated from 1970 to 1976 with a muon-neutrino beam produced by the Proton Synchrotron, before moving to the Superproton Synchrotron (SPS) until 1979.

1971 - The Intersecting Storage Rings produced the first-ever proton-proton collisions, a precursor to CERN's colliding-beam projects.

1972 -   A four ring 800 MeV Booster is completed to increase the injection energy of the PS. With the booster and a new Linac, which starts operation in 1978, the PS machine exceeds its design intensity by more than a thousand times.

1973 - CERN announces an experiment in its Gargamelle bubble chamber shows the existence of neutral currents, a major advance in understanding the particles of matter and how they interact. In particular, it gives strong support to the theory that attempts to unite our understanding of the weak force-governing such phenomena as radioactivity-with the familiar electromagnetic force.

1976 - The Super Proton Synchrotron, with a circumference of 7 km is built, providing beams to large experimental areas of CERN. Scientists using those beams in 1983 discover the two charged particles, called W, and their neutral counterpart Z. The Super Proton Synchrotron is now the last link in the chain providing beams for the Large Hadron Collider.

1978 - Experiments at CERN show how beam quality and intensity can be improved using the ‘stochastic cooling technique', enabling intense beams of antiprotons to be accelerated and stored.

1981 -   Conversion of the SPS into a proton-antiproton collider and the building of two experimental areas (UA-1 and UA-2) where data from the collisions can be taken. From then on, the operation of the SPS is divided between this collider mode and fixed-target physics. The first proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 2 x 270 GeV are seen in July 1981, a few months after the start-up of the new Antiproton Accumulator ring (AA), where stochastic cooling is applied to produce the antiproton beam. 

1981 - The Member States authorise construction of the Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) for an initial operating energy of 50 GeV per beam.

1983 - Scientists using beams from SPS discover the two charged particles, called W± and their neutral counterpart Z (the carriers of the weak nuclear force). These discoveries confirmed the Electroweak Theory.

1984 -  Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer receive the Nobel Prize for Physics for their experimental work on proton-antiproton collisions that culminated in the discovery of the W boson and Z boson at CERN in 1983. 

1989 - The Large Electron-Positron collider (LEP) is the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built with a circumference of 27 km (16.8 miles). The excavation of the tunnel to house it was Europe's largest civil engineering project before the Channel Tunnel. Its experiments proved there are three generations of particles of matter. The four LEP detectors are ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL. 1989: The determination of the number of light neutrino families is reached in LEP, operating on the Z boson peak.

1990 - CERN scientist Tim Berners-Lee invents the worldwide web to meet demands for information-sharing between scientists. Berners-Lee defined basic concepts like the URL, http and html and also wrote the first browser and server software.

1994 - The CERN governing Council approves construction of the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest particle accelerator with an eventual project cost of 10 billion Swiss francs (€ 7,4 billion).

1995 - Team at CERN's Low Energy Antiproton Ring facility creates atoms of anti-hydrogen, the first time that anti-matter particles were brought together to make complete atoms (the first creation of antihydrogen atoms in the PS210 experiment), helping explain the universe's asymmetry between matter and anti-matter.

1996 - LEP is upgraded to run at the W pair production threshold of 163 GeV. Further upgrades will take LEP energy to 200 GeV by 1999.

1997 - After agreeing to provide significant financial contributions to the LHC, the USA becomes an observer at CERN Council.

1999 - The discovery of direct CP violation in the NA48 experiment.

2000 - LEP was closed in 2000, after running for 11 years, to allow for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel. A final burst of excitement occurred a few months prior to the scheduled shut down when one collaboration reported findings of a Higgs boson signal; however, it was not enough evidence to keep LEP in operation.

2001 -  The European DataGrid project (EDG) is launched two years after the idea was born in Annapolis, USA. The project tests a networking infrastructure for the future computing grid. The Grid must connect tens of thousands of computers worldwide to serve scientific projects like the LHC. 

2002 - Two CERN experiments create and trap thousands of atoms of anti-matter in a "cold" state, meaning the atoms are slow-moving and can exist for long enough to be studied before they meet ordinary matter and annihilate. 

The first octupole correction magnet is delivered. In addition to the 1232 main dipole magnets that will curve the trajectory of the protons and the 400 focussing quadrupoles, the LHC will be equipped with some 5000 corrector magnets. The last piece of LEP goes up to the surface. In 14 months of dismantling, 40000 tonnes of material were removed from the 27-kilometre tunnel.

2003 - A record for backing up data on tapes is beaten with a rate transfer of 1.1 gigabytes per second over a period of several hours. That is equivalent to recording a whole film stored on DVD every four seconds.

A data transfer record is set. One terabyte of data was sent more than 10 000 km from CERN to California in just over an hour, at a rate of 2.38 gigabits per second. This is equivalent to sending 200 DVD films a quarter of the way around the world in an hour.

2003 -2008 - The assembly of LHC machine and its detectors takes place. During this time period a long number of milestones will be achieved in many different fields (electronics, cryogenics, magnets, computing, superconductivity, engeneering, infrastructures...).

2004 - The European project EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) is launched. Co-ordinated by CERN and financed by the European Commission, it aims at setting up an infrastructure for a world computing grid for science.

The SPS accelerator, which will have to feed the LHC, beats an intensity record with 50 thousand billion protons accelerated in its 7 kilometre loop.

2005 - The LHC Computing Grid, which must meet enormous storage and data-processing needs, reaches more than 100 centres in 31 countries. It is the largest international scientific computing grid.

A cryogenics unit cools to 1.8 kelvin (‑271.4°C) for the first time. This is the operating temperature of the LHC.

A new step toward the Computing Grid: For 10 days, eight data-processing centres transfer a continuous data flow, with a medium flow of 600 megabytes a second. Five hundred terabytes are transferred, which would require 250 years with a connection of 512 kilobits a second.

2006 - The new CERN Control Centre, which combines all the control rooms for the accelerators, the cryogenics and the technical infrastructure, starts operation. The LHC will be controlled from here. 
2007 - The biometric control to access the LHC is being set up. An iris recognition system will ensure the security of the entrances to the accelerator with special vestibules. 

2008 - The Large Hadron Collider starts up. Its experiments are expected to address questions such as what gives matter its mass, why nature prefers matter to anti-matter, and how matter evolved from the first instants of the universe's existence.

10 september 2008:LHC first beam

Nine days after it is switched on, the LHC is shut down because of overheating due to problems in the super-conducting cable connecting two cooling magnets. Repairs cost up to $30 million.

2009 - After restarting the Large Hadron Collider after more than a year of repairs, LHC sets new world record. CERN‟s Large Hadron Collider has become the world‟s highest energy particle accelerator, having accelerated its twin beams of protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV in the early hours of the morning. This exceeds the previous world record of 0.98 TeV, which had been held by the US Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory‟s Tevatron collider since 2001.

23 november 2009:LHC first collisions
30 november 2009: world record with beam energy of 1.18 TeV
16 December 2009:world record with collisions at 2.36 TeV and significant quantities of data recorded.

2010 - LHC sets new record. Two 3.5 TeV proton beams successfully circulated in the Large Hadron Collider for the first time. This is the highest energy yet achieved in a particle accelerator, and an important step on the way to the start of the LHC research programme.

Four days is all it took for the LHC operations team at CERN to complete the transition from protons to lead ions in the LHC. After extracting the final proton beam first collisions were recorded on 7 November.

The isolation of 38 atoms of antihydrogen.

2011 -Standard Model Higgs boson mass constrained to the range 115-130 GeV. In a seminar held at CERN On December 13th, the ATLAS and CMS experiments presented the status of their searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson.

22 april 2011: LHC sets new world record beam intensity.

Maintaining antihydrogen for over 15 minutes.

2012.  LHC are running with a beam energy of 4 TeV. The strategy is to optimise LHC running to deliver the maximum possible amount of data in 2012 before the LHC goes into a long shutdown to prepare for higher energy running. The schedule is to run beams through to November. There will then be a long technical stop of around 20 months, with the LHC restarting close to its full design energy late in 2014 and operating for physics at the new high energy in early 2015.

A Particle consistent with Higgs boson. The ATLAS and CMS experiments see strong indications for the presence of a new particle, which could be the Higgs boson, in the mass region around 126 gigaelectronvolts (GeV).

4 July 2012: Announcement of the discovery of a Higgs-like particle at CERN
28 september 2012: Tweet from CERN: "The LHC has reached its target for 2012 by delivering 15 fb1- (around a million billion collisions) to ATLAS and CMS"

The LHCb experiment discovered two excited states for the Λb beauty particle, and measured of one of the rarest processes so far observed in particle physics, the decay of a Bs  meson into two muons. ALICE performed detailed studies of the quark-gluon plasma, the matter of the primordial universe, and measurements from the TOTEM experiment are giving insights on the structure of the proton and provide input to the analyses of the other LHC experiments.

There were also exciting results from the antimatter hall as ALPHA made the first spectroscopic measurements of antihydrogen; and CERN celebrated several anniversaries: the Proton Synchrotron Booster celebrated its 40th birthday and to mark 100 years of research in cosmic rays
 the laboratory welcomed the astronauts who placed the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.

2013. LHC run for 4 weeks with p-Pb collisions Shutdown, before a Long Shutdown.

The Nobel prize in Physics 2013 was awarded to François Englert and Peter W. Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider."

2013/14. Long Shutdown (LS) for the whole accelerator complex (LS1) LS1 was started as the project for the repair of the magnet interconnects to allow operating LHC at 14 TeV cms.

2015. An important achievement with Run I data was the first observation (CMS + LHCb experiments) of the very rare decay of the B0s particle into two muon particles: B0→µ+µ. These decays are studied as they could open a window to theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry.

LHC experiments are back in business at a new record energy -13 TeV- almost double the collision energy of its first run. This marks the start of season 2 at the LHC, opening the way to new discoveries. The LHC will now run round the clock for the next three years.

CERN’s LHCb experiment reports observation of exotic pentaquark particles. The pentaquark is not just any new particle. It represents a way to aggregate quarks in a pattern that has never been observed before in over fifty years of experimental searches. Studying its properties may allow us to understand better how ordinary matter, the protons and neutrons from which we’re all made, is constituted.

The LHC collides ions at new record energy. Colliding lead ions allows the LHC experiments to study a state of matter that existed shortly after the big bang, reaching a temperature of several trillion degrees.

CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer passes the baton to Fabiola Gianotti. Geneva, 18 December 2015: the 178th session of the CERN Council today saw the handover ceremony from Rolf Heuer, CERN1’s Director-General for the past seven years, to Fabiola Gianotti, who will take up her functions at the head of the Organization on 1 January 2016.

2016. Chicago sees floods of LHC data and new results at the ICHEP 2016 conference . Particle physicists are showcasing a wealth of brand new results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN at the “ICHEP 2016”2 conference in Chicago. With a flood of new data, the experiment collaborations can now dive in and explore at the new energy frontier of 13 TeV, following last year’s first glimpse of physics at this unprecedented energy level. LHC collaborations are presenting more than 100 different new results, including many analyses based on newly taken 2016 data. In particular, the intriguing hint of a possible resonance at 750 GeV decaying into photon pairs, which caused considerable interest from the 2015 data, has not reappeared in the much larger 2016 data set and thus appears to be a statistical fluctuation.

The LHC MoEDAL experiment publishes its first paper on its search for magnetic monopoles. the MoEDAL experiment at CERN1 narrows the window of where to search for a hypothetical particle, the magnetic monopole. Over the last decades, experiments have been trying to find evidence for magnetic monopoles at accelerators, including at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. Such particles were first predicted by physicist Paul Dirac in the 1930s but have never been observed so far.

CERN welcomes Romania as its twenty-second Member State. On Monday, 5 September 2016, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization.

16 Dec 2016 — Following the notification of the completion of its internal approval procedures, Slovenia will join Cyprus and Serbia as an Associate Member State

19 Dec 2016 — In a Nature paper, the ALPHA collaboration reports the first ever measurement on the optical spectrum of an antimatter atom.

2017.  16 Jan 2017: Official notification that India has ratified the Association Agreement with CERN

28 April 2017, the LHC once again began circulating beams of protons, for the first time this year. This follows a 17-week-long extended technical stop. The aim for 2017 is to reach an integrated luminosity of 45 fb-1 and preferably go beyond.

6 July 2017, at the EPS Conference on High Energy Physics in Venice, the LHCb experiment at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider has reported the observation of Ξcc++(Xicc++) a new particle containing two charm quarks and one up quark.

12 October 2017, for eight hours, LHC was accelerating and colliding Xenon nuclei, allowing the large LHC experiments, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS and LHCb, to record xenon collisions for the first time.

14 Dec 2017 — In October 2017 the CERN data centre broke its own record for data storage when it collected 12.3 petabytes of data over a single month.

15 Dec 2017 — CERN celebrates 25 years since the beginning of the LHC experimental programme

2018. 8 Jan 2018 — CERN has been officially notified that Lithuania's internal procedures have been approved, following the Agreement signed in June 2017

26 Feb 2018 — After two decades of design and construction, CERN’s newest accelerator, Linac4, is on its way to join the LHC injection chain

19 Mar 2018 — ATLAS and CMS present new measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson in Moriond Conference (10 and 24 March 2018 in La Thuile in the Aosta Valley in Italy).

4 April 2018. The ALPHA collaboration has reported the most precise direct measurement of antimatter ever made, revealing the spectral structure of the antihydrogen atom in unprecedented colour. The result, published today in Nature, is the culmination of three decades of research and development at CERN, and opens a completely new era of high-precision tests between matter and antimatter.

25 July 2018, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead “atoms” containing a single electron into the LHC. This was one of the first proof-of-principle tests for a new idea called the Gamma Factory, part of CERN’s Physics Beyond Colliders project.

October 24th, protons performed their last lap of the track. At 6 a.m., the beams from fill number 7334 were ejected towards the beam dumps. It was the LHC’s last proton run from now until 2021, as CERN’s accelerator complex will be shut down from 10 December to undergo a full renovation. For the next weeks the collider will master lead ions (lead atoms that have been ionised, meaning they have had their electrons removed). The collisions of lead ions allow studies to be conducted on quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that is thought to have existed a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang.

2019. In March 2019 (Rencontres de Moriond), the LHCb collaboration at CERN has presented for the first time, the matter–antimatter asymmetry known as CP violation in a particle dubbed the D0 meson. To observe this CP asymmetry, the LHCb researchers used the full dataset delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to the LHCb experiment between 2011 and 2018 to look for decays of the D0 meson (this meson is made of a charm quark and an up antiquark and its antiparticle, the anti-D0, into either kaons or pions). CP violation is an essential feature of our universe, necessary to induce the processes that, following the Big Bang, established the abundance of matter over antimatter that we observe in the present-day universe. So far, CP violation has only been observed in particles containing a strange or a bottom quark.

Nov 2019 CERN Council appoints Fabiola Gianotti for second term of office as CERN Director General (Nov 2019). At its 195th Session today, the CERN Council selected Fabiola Gianotti, as the Organization’s next Director-General, for her second term of office. Gianotti’s new five-year term of office goes from 1 January 2021 to Decembrer 2025. This is the first time in CERN’s history that a Director-General has been appointed for a full second term.

2020. March: CERN reduced all activities on-site to those that are essential for the safety and security of the sites and equipment. The number of people with access to the CERN sites was limited. CERN’s Director-General established the CERN against COVID-19  task force in March 2020 to collect and coordinate ideas and contributions from the CERN community of over 18 000 people worldwide to the societal fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. These initiatives drawed on scientific and technical expertise and facilities at CERN, in the Member State countries and beyond, and was carried out with that community and in close contacts with the relevant health institutions and experts from other fields.

May: From 18 May CERN implements a cautious, flexible and safe 16-week plan for the gradual re-start of on-site activities, supported by COVID-19-specific health and safety measures. The highest priority continues to be protecting the health and well-being of all people on site and those working remotely.

2021, March: At the Rencontres de Moriond EW conference and at a seminar at CERN, the LHCb Collaboration presented an updated measurement of the ratio RK, an important test of a principle of the Standard Model of particle physics known as "lepton universality". For exemple, analysing process such as B+→ (K+μ+μ-) and B+→ (K+e+e-), the expected value for RK should be very close to 1, should the SM hold. However, LHCb, has very recently measured this ratio to be minor than 0.89. The result provides "evidence" that the SM might be wrong when describing how leptons behave in nature. By the end of 2022, new analyses put an end to this expectation.

Wheels in motion for ATLAS upgrade: New muon end-cap wheels currently being installed in the ATLAS detector will provide precision tracking and triggering at high rates for Run 3 and beyond.
First observation of three W bosons production (ATLAS).
The recently installed, upgraded ALICE inner tracking system is the largest pixel detector ever built and the first at the LHC to use monolithic active pixel sensors,
Four top quarks seen at once (ATLAS).

2022. The Observer status of the Russian Federation is suspended until further notice, due to the military invasion of Ukraine.

LHC Run 3 starts, after a vast programme of works completed during Long Shutdown 2. Protons collide at higher energies (13.6 compared to 13 TeV) and with higher luminosities (containing up to 1.8 × 1011 protons per bunch compared to 1.3–1.4 × 1011 ) than in Run 2. Current schedule foresees Long Shutdown 3 to start in 2026, one year later than in the previous schedule, and to last for three instead of 2.5 years.

July 4th: 10 Anniversary of the discovery of the Higgs boson.

5 July 2022- The international LHCb collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has observed three never-before-seen particles: a new kind of “pentaquark” and the first-ever pair of “tetraquarks”, which includes a new type of tetraquark. The findings, presented at a CERN seminar (2022 July 5th), add three new exotic members to the growing list of new hadrons found at the LHC. So far, 66 new particles have been discovered at the LHC.

A few weeks after the start of RUN3, several records were already reached.

Some of these are:

.- energy with Pb ions: 6.8 Z TeV (or 2.76 TeV/nucleon) //  .- peak luminosity: 2.5·1034

.- pile-up (almost simultaneous collision points) > 100   //  .- stored energy per beam: ~ 400 MJ

December 2022: the LHCb collaboration has made data from LHC Run1 available to the public for the first time, allowing anyone in the world to carry out research.

20 December 2022: the LHCb Collaboration announces that the analysis of Run 1 and Run 2 data indicates that the Universality Principle of the leptonic "flavour" is fulfilled, ending the expectations opened in March 2021.


March 2023. First Physics Results from FASER The FASER collaboration reports the first direct observation of neutrino interactions at a particle collider experiment. Neutrino candidate events are identified in a 13.6 TeV center-of-mass energy pp collision data set of 35.4 fb1 using the active electronic components of the FASER detector at the Large Hadron Collider.

March 2023. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations have both observed the simultaneous production of four top quarks, a rare phenomenon that could hold the key to physics beyond the Standard Model.

May 2023. First evidence of the rare decay of the Higgs boson into a Z boson and a photon.

July 2023. ATLAS sets record precision on Higgs boson’s mass.

August 2023. Important achievement comes from the LHCb Collaboration, December 2022, on the Principle of Universality of Lepton Flavor.

September, 2023. An exabyte of disk storage at CERN. The disk storage capacity at CERN passes the threshold of one million terabytes of disk space.


January 2024. CERN celebrates 70 years of scientific discovery and innovation. CERN turns 70 on 29 September 2024. A rich celebration programme enables the public to celebrate CERN’s illustrious past and engage with its bright future.

CERN Council decides to conclude cooperation with Russia and Belarus in 2024. The cooperation will come to an end on 27 June 2024 for the Republic of Belarus and on 30 November 2024 for the Russian Federation.



(*) For the bibliography used when writing this Section please go to the References Section



Xabier Cid Vidal, PhD in experimental Particle Physics for Santiago University (USC). Research Fellow in experimental Particle Physics at CERN from January 2013 to Decembre 2015. He was until 2022 linked to the Department of Particle Physics of the USC as a "Juan de La Cierva", "Ramon y Cajal" fellow (Spanish Postdoctoral Senior Grants), and Associate Professor. Since 2023 is Senior Lecturer in that Department.(ORCID).

Ramon Cid Manzano, until his retirement in 2020 was secondary school Physics Teacher at IES de SAR (Santiago - Spain), and part-time Lecturer (Profesor Asociado) in Faculty of Education at the University of Santiago (Spain). He has a Degree in Physics and a Degree in Chemistry, and he is PhD for Santiago University (USC) (ORCID).



CERN Directory

CERN Experimental Program

Theoretical physics (TH)

CERN Experimental Physics Department

CERN Scientific Committees

CERN Structure

CERN and the Environment



Detector CMS

Detector ATLAS

Detector ALICE

Detector LHCb

Detector TOTEM

Detector LHCf

Detector MoEDAL

Detector FASER

Detector SND@LHC



 For the bibliography used when writing this Section please go to the References Section

© Xabier Cid Vidal & Ramon Cid -  | SANTIAGO (SPAIN) |