Proton source

Taking a closer look at LHC

The proton sourcis where it all starts at CERN.

(a new system will be running in 2017-18 at Linac4)

"To make the protons", physicists inject hydrogen gas into the metal cylinder -Duoplasmatron-  then surround it with an electrical field to break down the gas into its constituent protons and electrons. This process yields about 70 percent protons.

We can simplify the process as follows:

H2 + e-  →  H2+ + 2e-

H2+ + e-  →  H+ + H + e-

H + e-  →  H+ + 2e-

 H2   →   2 H+ + 2e-

For the LHC beam, we need:

2808 bunches x 1.15·1011 = 3·1014   protons per beam

or,  1014  protons for the two beams   (1)

A single cubic centimetre of hydrogen gas at room temperature contains

with  P = 105 Pa   ,,   V = 10-6 m3   ,,   T=293 K

using   P·V = n·R·T  -   

n = 4·10-5 moles   ,,     N = 4·10-5 x 6·1023 = 2.4·1019 molecules  

So,  about 5·1019 atoms of hydrogen      (2)

Taking into account (1) and (2), the LHC can be refilled about 100000 times with just one cubic centimetre of gas – and it only needs refilling twice a day!

The particles are accelerated by a 90 kV supply and leave the Duoplasmatron with 1.4% speed of light, i.e. ~ 4000 km/s.
Then they are sent to a radio frequency quadrupole, QRF -an accelerating component that both speeds up and focuses the particle beam. From the quadrupole, the particles are sent to the linear accelerator (LINAC2).

A small commercial hydrogen cylinder contains about 5 kg of gas. So the amount of hydrogen molecules is:

n =  5000/2 = 2500 moles

2500  x 6·1023 = 1.5·1027 molecules

N = 2 x 1.5·1027 = 3·1027 atoms

Taking into account that the process yields about 70% protons we have:

  0,7 x 3·1027 = 2.1 ·1027atoms

With (1), this cylinder can be used:

2.1·1027 / 6  ·10143.5·1012  times

Since the LHC is filled every ten hours, this cylinder could be used for:

10 x 3.5·1012  = 3.5·1013 hours

So, about 4 ·10years

The hydrogen will diffuses out of the bottle faster.

A new ion source (providing in this case H-) will be working in the new linear accelerator, Linac4.


But not only protons for LHC


Xabier Cid Vidal, PhD in experimental Particle Physics for Santiago University (USC). Research Fellow in experimental Particle Physics at CERN from January 2013 to Decembre 2015. Currently, he is in USC Particle Physics Department (Spanish Postdoctoral Junior Grants Programme).

Ramon Cid Manzano, secondary school Physics Teacher at IES de SAR (Santiago - Spain), and part-time Lecturer (Profesor Asociado) in Faculty of Education at the University of Santiago (Spain). He has a Degree in Physics and in Chemistry, and is PhD for Santiago University (USC).



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 For the bibliography used when writing this Section please go to the References Section

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